Parallel worlds: a journey through creation, higher dimensions, and the future of the cosmos/Michio Kaku.—1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. 1. In this thrilling journey into the mysteries of our cosmos, bestselling author Michio Kaku takes us on a dizzying ride to explore black holes and time. parallel universes. By this very definition of “universe”, one might ex- pect the notion that our observable universe is merely a small part of a larger “multiverse” to.
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The Parallel Universe theory has been expanded on by lots of scientists over many this essay are the multiverse, the many interacting worlds theory and the . cover image of Parallel Worlds. Read A Sample. Parallel Worlds site Book; OverDrive Read; Adobe PDF eBook MB; Adobe EPUB eBook MB. Contents. 1. The Bounds of Reality. On Parallel Worlds. 2. Endless Doppelgängers. The Quilted Multiverse. 3. Eternity and Infinity. The Inflationary Multiverse. 4.
Still, many physicists share a general view that ultimate reality cannot be known through direct experience such as personal or laboratory measurements.
In fact, many physicists, while dealing with an entirely new world opened up by quantum theory and relativity, were often stranded in their effort to explain the experiments and observations. In his book Quantum Questions: Mystical Writings of the Worlds Great Physicists, Ken Wilber remarked it is the radical failure of [the new] physics, and not its supposed similarities to mysticism, that paradoxically led so many physicists to a mystical view of the world.
Some even abandoned the pure scientific view to embrace the mysticism and philosophy, perhaps, as a last solace. Among the many universes envisioned by physicists, one could exist in extra dimensions and might be physically very close to us. As creatures of a three-dimensional world, 2 Vishnu is the second God in the Hindu triumvirate or Trimurti. The triumvirate consists of three Gods who are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world.
The other two Gods are Brahma and Shiva. The role of Shiva is to destroy the universe in order to recreate it. The ultimate goal in Hinduism is to achieve moksha through the realization that ones Atman and Brahman are the same thing. But scientists hope that these universes might drop some clues to help us identify them, like ripples in a pond help us locate the actual disturbance.
Modern scientific theories of creation and the world of particle physics help us develop a picture of our cosmos, which might be just one of many possible universes, provided the manyworld interpretation will survive in coming years.
Since the mystical connotations have been of interest to many physicists, its appropriate to discuss bit about the interest of Hindu Gods in Western culture.
One of my fellow faculty members has a Ganesha deity on his table, which he had collected from India during a trip several years ago. Ganesha sits there displaying a deep sense of tranquility close to a computer in all his majesty and mystery in an American office setting.
Another of my colleagues, who is an expert in world mythology, named her lovely daughter Kali, after the fearful and ferocious Hindu Goddess. In both cases, they ended up telling me that they simply liked the object and the name and gracefully skipped the religious and philosophical implications one could attach to these. But that made me wonder why Hindu Gods and Goddesses are getting so much attention in Western culture, though many of them are still unaware of it.
Is it simply the curiosity that drives such affinity? We all know that planets are named after Greek or Roman Gods.
A Journey Through Creation, Higher Dimensions, and the Future of the Cosmos
This is explicable given the Greek connection to early astronomy and the European inheritance of the ancient knowledge gained by Greeks. But often the names simply deceive. For example, the planet Venus is named after the Goddess of beauty, though now we know that the so-called beautiful planets atmosphere is full of carbon dioxide with a floating mist of sulfuric acid that can corrode any flesh.
What a strange beauty!!! Of course, beauty can be deceiving and dangerous. Obviously, ancient notions about planets and stars were skewed, though they laid the foundation of modern astronomy. Sanskrit and Indian philosophy always had a broad appeal to philosophers and scientists. Oppenheimers remark from the Bhagavad Gita, Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds, has been widely written about; it came to his mind after Oppenheimer observed the first experimental detonation of an atomic bomb in the New Mexico desert.
Furthermore, the Hindu Gods easily blend into the human psyche. Many of them engaged in activities that we are used to. They, like us, loved, hated, killed and procreated. They enlightened their followers with words and deeds and explained material success and failure to the devotees, making it easier for them to overcome the delusion of both.
Another reason is the association Hindu Gods have with deeper philosophical nuance and its linkage to science. Theoretical physicist Fritjof Capras The Tao of Physics is an international bestseller that explores and relates the depiction of the Nataraja posture with the continuous creation and destruction of particles and their different manifestations in the universe. It portrays Shivas dance of creation and destruction, much like the dance of fundamental particles that generates and destroys matter and energy in the universe in various forms.
A plaque next to the Shiva statue captures the contemporary connotation of the metaphor of Shivas cosmic dance from Capras book: Modern physics has shown that the rhythm of creation and destruction is not only manifest in the turn of the seasons and in the birth and death of all living creatures, but is also the very essence of inorganic matter and for the modern physicists.
Then, Shivas dance is the dance of subatomic matter. The metaphor of the cosmic dance thus unifies ancient mythology, religious art and modern physics. It is ironic that, partly driven by capitalist market forces, the customer service representatives working for U. There is little reason to resent this, as even Gods are subjected to the laws of nature for their survival.
Again, I learned that my colleague who is expecting soon will name her daughter Maya, the ultimate illusion. And, if anyone seeks a boys name, a clear choice is Vishnu, another name that is vanishing from the Indian demographic landscape as virtual Bobs and Joes flourish and survive along with Pepsi and McDonalds. We cannot foresee how future generations will perceive the world. They might not be interested in any illusion, as in years from now they may have transformed into beings without any name and desire to know anything.
Then the great Maya will dissolve in Brahman. While analyzing the cosmic microwave background CMB radiation data, scientists discovered evidence of a huge void spanning almost 1 billion light-years 1 light-year6 is approximately 10 trillion km. The void in the infant universe represents the absence of any material, which otherwise should have become stars and planets. None of the current cosmological theories can explain such huge voids in the data.
Some physicists interpret this as the unmistakable imprint of another universe beyond the edge of our own. Physicist Mersini-Houghton proposed a model of entangled universes, under which they predict two huge voids, not just one Frankel One of them has been found by WMAP data, and new data is expected to reveal a second similar void.
The recently launched Planck satellite by the European Space Agency, whose exceedingly sensitive detectors measure CMB radiation and which captured its first image recently, may be able to ascertain this second void. Even if everyone agrees these features are caused by shadow universes, we still could not deduce anything about them aside from their ghostly thumbprint.
It is the distance that light can travel in one year. Light moves at a velocity of about , kilometers km each second. So in one year, it can travel about 10 trillion km. More precisely, one light-year is equal to 9,,,, km.
The effect of multiverse. The colored dots are clusters within one of four distance ranges, with redder colors indicating greater distance. Colored ellipses show the direction of bulk motion for the clusters of the corresponding color. Kashlinsky et al. Whether Vedic cosmology, as some suggest, has scores of other eerie parallels with some of the most cutting-edge recent cosmological theories of multiverse, oscillating universe, and the Big Bang, so it should come as no surprise that some of the greatest minds in science have turned to these 3,year-old cosmological ideas for inspiration and questions about our enigmatic universe.
Some physicists have shown deep interest in philosophical aspects of Upanishads. For one, these modern cosmological theories may themselves be disproved and, besides, many physicists remain skeptical of these theories.
Some cosmologists, for instance, question the whole notion of multiverse. According to them, if the universe encompasses everything we know or ever want to know, it rules out any room for parallel universes. Some other models suggest that universes are finite in number and restricted by mathematical formulations.
These are collections of stories, discussions, and instructions addressing issues of the relationship between the human and the ultimate realms. Cosmic Parallels? Even so, the idea that all structures that exist mathematically also exist physically is the foundation of the parallel universe concept. This hypothesis, known as the ultimate ensemble, predicts the existence of all universes that can be defined by mathematical equations.
But many physicists disagree on the grounds that not all mathematical structures are well defined. Nevertheless, the concept of many worlds or parallel universes, which would have invited the ridicule of mainstream physicists, as it did when it was first proposed more than half a century ago by American physicist Hugh Everett, is currently one of the hottest trends in theoretical physics.
The multiverse theory is the inevitable result of quantum mechanics, which represents a set of multiple probable states for a particle. When an observation is made, the particle chooses one of the multiple states measured by the observer, and the other states collapse. This is the most basic principle behind the existence of many universes, or multiverses.
Quantum physics, the study of the minutest particles that make up matter, has been remarkably successful, but it reveals a picture of a quantum reality so strange that our minds are unable to grasp it. For instance, quantum mechanical experiments have proved that objective reality is unlikely to have a separate existence.
The nature of the ultimate reality is intertwined with our actions, and uncertainty rules when we observe it. This is contrary to our common sense view that reality has an existence independent of the observer. In the realm of the smallest particles, however, objective reality is not an absolute entity that can definitely be measured, as is true in classical physics. Erwin Schrodinger, a leading theorist in quantum mechanics, who had a lifelong interest in philosophy, wrote : From all we have learnt about the structure of living matter, we must be prepared to find it working in a manner that cannot be reduced to the ordinary laws of physics.
And that not on the ground that there is any new force or what not, directing the behavior of the single atoms within a living organism, but because the construction is different from anything we have yet tested in the physical laboratory.
This is not very far removed from the concept of Brahman the self-existent, immanent, and transcendent supreme and ultimate reality. Brahman is the fundamental divine cause of everything in and beyond the universe.
The nature of Brahman is explained as personal and impersonal, and it is the source of the creation of the universe and Gods. The universe and all the objects in it are the manifestation of a fundamental reality, which we dont know yet. We understand the universe as an exchange of matter and energy, and scientists often disagree about the fundamental building blocks of these phenomena. The absence of objective reality implies that the material world could be an illusion or, what Hindu sages called Maya.
In Hinduism, Maya8 is the natural illusion that the material world is the only reality. It is a skewed perception, albeit commonly held, to believe that the material world is the fundamental reality. Maya, which has its roots in the Upanishads, denotes the power of God to make human beings believe in an illusion. The material world is the manifestation of Brahman, the infinite and immortal reality that is responsible for matter, energy, space, time, and every being.
The scriptures and philosophies seek to unveil the illusion to learn the ultimate truth. However, such descriptions are Maya is the illusion or the skewed perspective with which we experience the universe.
Science employs its own methods and procedures toward that goal. Our universe and its subjects are creatures of spirit coated with matter that conceals the spirit from the light. Science can demonstrate its processes, is based on rationality and logic, and can be comprehended, but that is somewhat lost in the scheme of the ancient wisdom.
Consider, for example, this Upanishad expression, That which permeates all, which nothing transcends and which, like the universal space around us, fills everything completely from within and without, that Supreme non-dual Brahman That Thou Art.
Our interpretations of the evolution of the cosmos, once based on myths and legends, have advanced markedly in the last century.
We live in a universe that is beaming with billions of galaxies that are continuously expanding. We now know that this expansion is accelerating, and we will never know what is beyond our cosmic horizon, as no light will ever reach us from the expanding universe. It is ironic that we need many universes for the existence of our own universe! The scientific approach always assumes that fundamental reality is different from us, and we are independent observers seeking truth.
But many researchers now believe that we must rethink this assumption. Our observation impacts the observed reality, because we are part of it. This essentially is the Advaita9 philosophy, a cornerstone of Hinduism, which asserts that Brahman ultimate reality and Atman self are the same.
Such a non-dualistic approach is advocated by many modern researchers who argue that the effect of observation either changes reality or creates new realities. Human eyes operate using the visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing us to view only objects that emit light, which comprise only a small fraction of the universe.
In modern times, telescopes augmented the unaided eye in the hunt for the unknown. Operating from ground and space, these telescopes scan the cosmos to draw pictures of material objects. Even with telescopes, we exploit the electromagnetic radiation to weave images of the cosmos. Whether it is gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves, or visible light, throughout human history we have been dependent upon different forms of light to learn of cosmic events that document our own history.
Here, let us discuss the most popular telescope of our time the Hubble Telescope, known as the mirror on the universe. Now, years after Galileo attempted to know the heavens using his spy glasses, our machines can narrate the story of the heavens in much more detail.
The heavens narrate their stories in a distinct manner and allow humans to discern the mystery of creation and evolution. Up to now, humans could accomplish this only through 9 Advaita means non-dual and is a prominent school of thought in Hindu philosophy.
This doctrine identifies the self atman with the ultimate reality Brahman and negates any real distinction between the individual and the entire universe. This is because light is a messenger that can convey the untold chronicles of the cosmos, which has been a great source of myths and legends ever since the beginning of humankind.
For the ancients, the heavens were the citadel of Gods who visited them for various reasons and often punished them with fiery objects. The naked eye had been the only means to investigate the elements of the cosmos, and it changed forever in Galileo, the father of modern astronomy, developed a new scientific world when he used the power of the telescope to explore the heavens.
He narrated the accounts of his observation in The Starry Messenger published in Telescopes are often referred to as time machines, as they escort us back in time. When we peep at a star or any other object a few million light years away, we are in fact seeing that object as it existed a few million years ago.
Since Galileos first use of the telescope, scientists have been improving the power of telescopes to gaze at the unfathomable universe. Now, years after the Galilean adventure, modern astronomers are on the verge of investigating the frontiers of the known universe. A variety of telescopes, operating from ground and space, aid them in this process. If the Galilean spy glasses were able to reach just the backyard of our galactic neighborhood, the modern era telescopes take us closer to the moments of creation known as the Big Bang.
Among these machines is the worlds most famous telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, which turned 22 on April 24, During the last two decades of operation, it saw the birth and death of stars and captured many turbulent cosmic collisions. It granted us an exotic vision to enjoy the wonders that lie in the tempestuous cosmic ocean. It continues to beam hundreds of images back to Earth every week. Figure 2. There are many descriptions for the Hubble telescope, including the eye on the sky or the mirror on the universe Image credit: NASA.
Since its launch in , most of its original instruments have been upgraded or replaced by service missions. Hubble, located at about km above Earths surface, approximately the size of a school bus, completes one full orbit around Earth in 97 min.
In addition to many startling discoveries, the Hubble images have become the artwork of the cosmos. In fact, some of these objects date back to the baby universe, approximately 13 billion years ago, when the galaxies were just forming from the seeds of the Big Bang.
This particular image contains an estimated 10, galaxies in different shapes and sizes. Each of them might contain billions of stars and many possible planetary systems. Scientists were perplexed at the mere existence of such a large number of galaxies, and some even dubbed them as Kingdoms of Heaven.
The mystery surrounding the creation and existence of the universe reaches out to us in the form of light energy. Hubble has done more than any other modern telescope to garner that energy and to paint a picture of the history of the universe for coming generations.
Edwin Hubble observed and measured the departure of galaxies using a technique known as the redshift in physics. Now we know that the galaxies not only depart from each other, but their exodus is accelerated by the inexplicable dark energy. The latest and last Hubble repair mission was conducted in May , extending the life span of the telescope for another 5 years.
The instruments on the telescope can observe the edges of the universe in visible light, ultraviolet and infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. HST is located at about km above Earths surface with an approximate size of a school bus.
If our current notion of the universe is true, in the far future our own Milky Way Galaxy will be left alone in the galactic playground, with other galaxies having receded to unknown parts of the cosmos. The finite speed of light will not overcome the unlimited space that would be created among the galaxies due to the accelerating nature of their retreat.
This could lead future generations to assume that their galaxy is the same as the universe. If preserved, the Hubble images will enlighten our descendants with the chronicle of that ultimate isolation.
We believe what we see, but astronomy has long taught us that our eyes deceive. What we see today might be the drama of the cosmos unfolded long ago. Past, present, and future lose their meaning in the vastness of the universe.
Recently, researchers and telescopes detected the most distant object in the visible universe. This view of nearly 10, galaxies is the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. Called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, this galaxystudded view represents a deep core sample of the universe, cutting across billions of light-years Courtesy of NASAimages.
So, even as we wonder how far we can see to the edge of the universe, it also invites the fundamental question: Can we trust what we see? Four hundred years after Galileo peeped into the heavens using the first telescope, human civilization set its sights on the edge of the visible universe. There are no magic machines in the foreseeable future to lead us further. This GRB, estimated to be Astronomers use redshift as a tool for determining distances in the universe. The redshift is the wavelength or frequency shift of light as it travels.
This is similar to the changes in the frequency of an ambulance siren as it passes by. We perceive the declining frequency or lower pitch of sound as it travels, even though the ambulance is producing it at the same frequency. Analysis of light from cosmic events, such as a GRB enables researchers to measure the distance and origin of such events.
Light is a messenger that carries the details of its journey in its wavelength spectrum. It also means that if light does not reach us, there is no way of knowing what is out there in the farthest corners of the universe. GRB is the aftermath of the explosion from one of the early stars in the universe. Since this event occurred It is usual for massive stars to end their life at younger ages compared to less dense stars, which survive billions of years.
When mid-sized stars, such as our Sun, finish their main sequence life, they end up as white dwarfs, a relatively quiet event. However, massive stars send out the message of their demise as waves after a violent death in the form of supernovae. During this process, the core of the star transforms into a highly dense neutron star, sending the outer layer of stellar masses to form a nebula. A nebula serves as the feeding grounds for the next generation of stars.
Nebulae teach us that death and birth are cyclic in the universe rather than absolute transformations. Our Solar System was once a part of a nebula created from the death of a star caused by a supernova explosion. In nature, creation-preservation-destruction are continuous cycles, without beginning or end.
A supernova explosion more details about supernova will be discussed in Chap. Scientists believe our Sun is a third-generation star. Millions of years later, organic molecules formed in one of the planets and evolved to become intelligent beings humans. In essence, all the heavier elements, such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen that make up our body came from supernova explosions.
Hawking has said that "according to Feynman's idea", all the other histories are as "equally real" as our own,  and Martin Gardner reports Hawking saying that MWI is "trivially true". I think that that's all the many worlds interpretation is.
Some people overlay it with a lot of mysticism about the wave function splitting into different parts. But all that you're calculating is conditional probabilities. He feels that can't correspond to reality.
But that doesn't bother me. I don't demand that a theory correspond to reality because I don't know what it is. Reality is not a quality you can test with litmus paper.
All I'm concerned with is that the theory should predict the results of measurements. Quantum theory does this very successfully. These are the components of the post-measurement state that do not guide any particles because they do not have the actual configuration q in their support. At first sight, the empty branches do not appear problematic but on the contrary very helpful as they enable the theory to explain unique outcomes of measurements.
On a closer view, though, one must admit that these empty branches do not actually disappear. Now, if the Everettian theory may be accused of ontological extravagance, then Bohmian mechanics could be accused of ontological wastefulness. On top of the ontology of empty branches comes the additional ontology of particle positions that are, on account of the quantum equilibrium hypothesis, forever unknown to the observer.
Yet, the actual configuration is never needed for the calculation of the statistical predictions in experimental reality, for these can be obtained by mere wavefunction algebra. From this perspective, Bohmian mechanics may appear as a wasteful and redundant theory. I think it is considerations like these that are the biggest obstacle in the way of a general acceptance of Bohmian mechanics.
There is no consensus on whether this has been successful. Everett stopped doing research in theoretical physics shortly after obtaining his Ph. Andrew Gleason and James Hartle independently reproduced Everett's work  which was later extended.
Neill Graham later provided alternative and longer derivations to Everett's derivation of the Born rule. Decision theory[ edit ] A decision-theoretic derivation of the Born rule from Everettarian assumptions, was produced by David Deutsch  and refined by Wallace —     and Saunders He has proved that the Born rule and the collapse of the wave function follow from a game-theoretical strategy, namely the Nash equilibrium within a von Neumann zero-sum game between nature and observer.
Zurek  has produced a derivation of the Born rule, where decoherence has replaced Deutsch's informatic assumptions. Carroll , building on work by Lev Vaidman ,  proposed a similar approach based on self-locating uncertainty. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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January Learn how and when to remove this template message In Everett's formulation, a measuring apparatus M and an object system S form a composite system, each of which prior to measurement exists in well-defined but time-dependent states. Measurement is regarded as causing M and S to interact. After S interacts with M, it is no longer possible to describe either system by an independent state. According to Everett, the only meaningful descriptions of each system are relative states: for example the relative state of S given the state of M or the relative state of M given the state of S.
In DeWitt's formulation, the state of S after a sequence of measurements is given by a quantum superposition of states, each one corresponding to an alternative measurement history of S. Schematic illustration of splitting as a result of a repeated measurement. For example, consider the smallest possible truly quantum system S, as shown in the illustration. This describes for instance, the spin-state of an electron. Considering a specific axis say the z-axis the north pole represents spin "up" and the south pole, spin "down".
The superposition states of the system are described by the surface of a sphere called the Bloch sphere. To perform a measurement on S, it is made to interact with another similar system M. After the interaction, the combined system is described by a state that ranges over a six-dimensional space the reason for the number six is explained in the article on the Bloch sphere.
This six-dimensional object can also be regarded as a quantum superposition of two "alternative histories" of the original system S, one in which "up" was observed and the other in which "down" was observed.
Each subsequent binary measurement that is interaction with a system M causes a similar split in the history tree. The accepted terminology is somewhat misleading because it is incorrect to regard the universe as splitting at certain times; at any given instant there is one state in one universe. January Learn how and when to remove this template message In his doctoral dissertation, Everett proposed that rather than modeling an isolated quantum system subject to external observation, one could mathematically model an object as well as its observers as purely physical systems within the mathematical framework developed by Paul Dirac , von Neumann and others, discarding altogether the ad hoc mechanism of wave function collapse.
Since Everett's original work, there have appeared a number of similar formalisms in the literature. One such is the relative state formulation. It makes two assumptions: first, the wavefunction is not simply a description of the object's state, but that it actually is entirely equivalent to the object, a claim it has in common with some other interpretations.
Secondly, observation or measurement has no special laws or mechanics, unlike in the Copenhagen interpretation which considers the wavefunction collapse as a special kind of event which occurs as a result of observation.Reality is not a quality you can test with litmus paper.
Multiverse cosmological models. This is explicable given the Greek connection to early astronomy and the European inheritance of the ancient knowledge gained by Greeks. Yet, the concept of multiverses would remain as powerful as our own universe. The scientific history of parallel universes begins with a doctoral thesis by Hugh M.
One of them has been found by WMAP data, and new data is expected to reveal a second similar void.
Science Category: And, if anyone seeks a boys name, a clear choice is Vishnu, another name that is vanishing from the Indian demographic landscape as virtual Bobs and Joes flourish and survive along with Pepsi and McDonalds.